History of Rajhrad

First report about Rajhrad dates in 13th century. It concerned two documents – so-called falsa of Břevnov. First document is a prince Bretislav´s deed of donation dated 18th October 1045. Second document is institutive document dated in Rajhrad 26th November 1048. At 13th century the village was commissioned as a town with a right to hold a sevendays annual fair. At 18th century, a baroque beauty of a benediktine’s monastery arose. The monastery was built by project of Jan Blazej Santini Aichel in years 1721 – 1840. Nowadays Rajhrad has 2784 inhabitants. Rajhrad was appointed to city on 27th October 2000.

Great moravian Rajhrad

Great moravian Rajhrad probably rised in half of 9th century. The exposed tombs from burial-ground in Rebesovice support the theory that great moravian Rajhrad died away about 100 years later. In second half of 10th century we didn‘ t meet great moravian Rajhrad any more. Remains of the ramparts piecemeal dissolved,however name Rajhrad stayed.

The birth of contemporary Rajhrad

We can find first writing report about contemporary Rajhrad in two documents. Both documents fall within so-called falsa of Brevnov, which originate from 13th century. First document is a prince Bretislav´s deed of donation dated 18th October 1045. The name of village, where was a market constituted and bridge toll introduced, appeared in the deed in context with donation a desolate castle with cella. Second document is institutive document dated in Rajhrad 26th November 1048. A list of donated villages to Rajhrad‘s monatestery is written in that document. Rajhrad was between gift-villages. All researches confirm a guess that contemporary Rajhrad arose after a destruction Great moravian bulwark.

Market-town Rajhrad in 13th and 14th century

The village Rajhrad was commissioned as a market-town at unquiet 13th century. It happened on 2nd November 1234. Brno margrave Premysl confered on Rajhrad a right to hold a sevendays annual fair. The Rajhrad promotion was performed in accordance with a german laws. At the time of these changes the village Celadice was entablished between two shoulders of Svratka river. Inhabitants this village had a mission to protect the monastery. From the outset Celadice was diminutive village, which never had any possibility to progress and had a shortage of land for a living. 14th century bears to the Rajhrad monastery and the market-town an unusual development. The monastic manor was increased, monastic lords acquired a criminal law. This law determined a hearing, a verdict even a capital punishement. First ecclesiastical building appeared at 1330. A chapel was built on a place of todays Holy rood church next to the cementery on Masaryk street. So the believers from Rajhrad, Holasice, Popovice and Sobotovice could go on the divine service in the time of flood.

The half of 14ht century brought the brew law. Frequent plaints on brewers from Brno and thei r wrong quality beer caused a meeting of malsters at Brno at 1353. On the meeting was solved a problem, why they didn’t cook the Brno beer so much quality like in Rajhrad, Tisnov, Blansko and else.Writing reports proves that the beer was cooked both in the market-town and in the monastery in Rajhrad. The beer was cooked just in the monastery from the end of 16th century.

Rajhrad vineculture

The municipal seals of Rajhrad and surrounding villages witness about an old origin of the Rajhrad vineculture. From the year 1554 Rajhrad has in a heraldry a brevnov abbatial ostrev (a piece of a hacked tree trunk with three knots) crossed with a key, which is a symbol of a hill law: opening and closing a hill. The Rajhrad vineculture evolved very hopefully. At the year 1554 a smaller city law mentioned that a tavern, which was bought by the town from the monastery, was commissioned to a town hall. There was a large wine-vault in the town hall. We didn’t know exactly, when did this tavern arise but it certainly was before the year 1554. The tavern’s wine-vault belongs between the oldest wine-vaults in the town. It exists up to this day and it is south of the tavern. Nowadays it is its part under the building of ex-orlovna today the Rajhrad restaurant.

At the years 1691 – 1692 a wine-vault was made by a provost Placid Novotny in todays Stefanik street. The year 1720 was built a cellar that was rebuilt to “presshaus and lusthaus” (a winepress house) in a baroque style at 1774. The baroque building, which copied pavilions of Santini from a monasterian prelature, fell to ruins in time. At the year 1934 a middle part of the building was taken down and at the year 1960 it was replaced by a nowadays new areal. In the first half of 19th century another large wine-vault arose. Josef Klein built it at 1827. He was a member of family that markedly wrote into a history of building railways, roads and modifications of watercourses. Klein family markedly involved at building railway from Rajhrad to Brno. Josef Klein lived with his father Friedrich in Rajhrad. The monastery bought the Klein wine-vault after a dead both Kleins at the thirties the last century. Both wine-vaults from the Stefanik Street was jointed in one complex. Others wine-vaults was situated next to the monastery houses in town, in the liberty courts of Tesovsky and Palecky. The wine-vault at Tesovsky was on the place, where is the east part of a court of a malt house today. The wine-vault at Palecky was in the nowadays Tovarni street (todays Matl familly’s house).

The old cellar was under the monasterian forge. A lord’s cellar in the square was destroyed at 1774. The Rajhrad wine-economy saved up to the present days thanks to a wealthy tradition. A mark “Rajhrad’s monastery” is image of a quality and a long-time tradition.

Development of Rajhrad at 17th till 19th century

The beginning 17th century was in a sign a foundation of a school. A provost Kotelik was an initiator the foundation of the school. The school is documentary by a note about the first teacher Vaclav Hanslik, who taught there in years 1623-1642. The Rajhrad school had a high repute from the beginning (s. B. Dudik, Geschichte II, pgs. 1 17). Until the year 1914 the Rajhrad monastery had a sponsorship over the school. Among others it warranted a quality choice of teachers.

The second half of 17th century meant a great construction activity in Rajhrad. A repair of the monastery began, a monasterial water piping was built from Rebesovice and a monasterial malt house was built at 1671. The big changes happened in Rajhrad too. In the last quarter a 17th century a new chapel with a cemetery arose on a place of the old chapel, a large wine-vault was constructed. There has been a town hall. A painting of the town, probably from years 1683-1750, represented very realistically at that time Rajhrad. At 18th century, a baroque beauty of a benediktine’s monastery arose. The monastery was rebuilt into a nowadays form not until 1840. An „imperial“ road from Vienna to Brno was built together with the monastery. The construction activity continued at the year 1760, when a todays „Pitra’s“ stone bridge was built across a river Svratka. A year later, a building of a monasterial court, standing opposite the cemetery on Masaryk street, was begun. Until the year 1788 a pillory stood at the square. It was replaced by a stone fountain, which worked whole 73 years than it was replaced a todays fountain. In the year 1898 it came to a big repair of water piping used by 2 centuries. Wooden pipes was replaced by iron pipes. At the end of 18th century Rajhrad had 90 houses, 130 families and 650 inhabitants. In this century, two wars touched Rajhrad. It was the Prussian invasion in 1742 and after Russian troops campaigned against France in 1789. Wartime privation was supplemented famine that prevailed after heavy frosts in the years 1771-1772. The monastery helped to affected population begining of many emergency works. Rajhrad changed the face. Vineyards was established, the trough of the mill drive regulated, part of the popovicky forest disappeared. Twenties and thirties 19th century are marked by two important buildings. In 1827 the building of school was built in today's Masaryk Street, originally two-classes.

Early 20th century, the school was completed in its present form. Years 1838-1839 are marked by building steam Railways Vienna-Brno. The trial operation of the Rajhrad section was launched on 18th November 1838. The construction of the railway is reminiscent of a commemorative plaque on the building the Rajhrad station. Throughout the nineteenth century was characterized by a great building and cultural development at Rajhrad . 1848 the flow of the river Svratka regulated, after 1864 a first elected municipal council, controlled by the a mayor Jan Hruza, stood at the head of the village. In this period, a civil union ”Paradise“ , an Economic Association, a malt, a Society for plowing and a craft of Fellowship trades were based. In 1894, the Rajhrad sugar factory changed on the hats factory . Along with economic development there was a large cultural development. In sixties and seventies amateur dramatics began playing, Reading clubs (eg Břetislav) resulted. In 1883, a Cyrillic unity, which cooperated with Leos Janacek and Josef Bohuslav Foerstrem in its activites, was based. The war affected the Rajhrad development an expressive way in 1866. 20 000 Prussian soldiers passed the town. This movement of troops caused considerable supply, police and health problems. There was even the cholera. During the 19th century, Rajhrad began to change significantly, but the appearance was still a village character. The town fountain was the only element that resembled a town.

Rajhrad changes in the 20th century

At the beginning of the 20th Century in 1902, miller Tomek based a power, which supplied the DC for Rajhrad until 1934. In 1995, the power was put back into the service after the long break . Beginning of the 20th century gived Rajhrad important building - the Earth's orphanage. At the same time three orphanage were built in Moravia : in Moravian Krumlov, in Vsetin and in Rajhrad. The orphans are welcomed in their new home in Rajhrad in October 1904. From busy 19th century Rajhrad took the development of the cultural life and the creation of new associations in the 20th century. The connection patriotic thinking of teachers, businessmen and intelligence led to founding of a Sokol in 1905. Five years later, a Catholic-oriented gymnastics club Orel was based. The opera by William Blodek „In the Well“ was the culmination of cultural life in Rajhrad before the First World War. In this unique event it came to link the Cyrillic unity, the Sokol musicians and the members of the association Břetislav. In the musical preparation work of teachers Bohumil Menšík and William Petru excelled . The First World War stopped this promising development. Federal activity picked up again with the establishment of RAFK(Rajhrad athletics, football club) in 1919. In subsequent years another clubs were based, but only RAFK develops a continuous operation to this day. The local library, founded in 1922, lends the books without interruption until the present day. Dr. Charles Uhl, Jan Peškař and later John Krejci, standing at her birth and taking care of quality library collection, laid the foundation of fair library work. In the twenties and thirties, the building development of Rajhrad continued. A part so-called Matlaška was built, Isle Street borned. In the years 1925-1927, Sokol house was built, where was projected silent films and since 1934 talkies except fitness activities. Five amateur theatrical associations developed rich activities. Great actors, Rudolf Chromek (ex-member Mahen Drama in Brno) and Konstantin Mátl (ex-member of the drama in Olomouc), grew on Rajhrad stages. Interweaving of the cultural tourism and the construction continued in the thirties. The paving Masaryk Street was finished, Association of embellishment built a town park. On the 1st September 1935, Masaryk Town Jubilee School began teaching.

In 1935, it is already fully operational at the two-track rail Breclav Brno. End of thirties brought the extension of called Pitra Bridge and a memorial to the President TG Masaryk was relevated in front of the unions 'Paradise'. The Orel Unity opened in 1936 own gym and Sokols built the stage with dressing rooms.

A mutilated formation of so-called Second Republic changed forcibly to Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak State on 14th and 15th March in 1939. In the Second World War, the backlash against the Nazi dictatorship arose in the Nazis subjected countries. This was also in Rajhrad. Rajhrad citizens felt Heydrich’s accession to the post the Reich Protector and consequences of the assassination of his person. In September 1941, Jan Krejci (red. creation, Red Law) was executed at Prague. In April-July 1942, Rajhrad citizens Jan Peškař, Zdenek Danek, Helena Toulová, Jana Vafková, Rudolf Trach and Cyril Vafek were gradually arrested and executed. Cyril Vafek took his life a jump from a window the Faculty of Law in Brno in the interrogation by the Gestapo on 29th June 1942. The executions of Rajhrad citizens, members of the Defending the Nation, were performed in Kounicovy koleje in Brno. Rudolph Trach died in a concentration camp at Dachau. Others arrested, Stephen Adler, Colonel gene. Staff Cs. Army, was executed in Berlin. A year later Bohumil Cetl and William Faber died at Auschwitz. Both were arrested in connection with the Rajhrad resistance. Wife of executed John Peškař, teacher Ludmila Peškařová, was arrested and then deported to concentration camps Rawensbrűck in May 1943. She survived her life in the concentration camp and happily returned home after the war. Other participants of the resistance were gradually briefly imprisoned and interrogated. To all Rajhrad’s participants of the resistance include our admiration and gratitude. Dűrbőck Jan and Jan Hilarious fought in the Czechoslovak foreign armies. Rajhrad citizens were officially welcomed on the occasion of the first Sokol post-war public exercising on 12th August 1945. In the early hours of 25th April 1945 Rajhrad was exempt. During the liberation struggle, Major General Maxim Jevsejevič Kozyr and a member of the Red army, Nina Kutkova fell at the south margin of the town. General Kozyr, as the only general who was killed in Czechoslovakia, was buried in Prague's Olsany, Nina Kuťkovová has her grave in the Rajhrad Cemetery.

Currently, Rajhrad has 2764 inhabitants. A profitable position of Rajhrad, a town gas distribution system, completing the construction of the sewage treatment plant, the canalization and the water-supply connect to the water-supply so-called Vír, the promising business activity, everything is creating conditions for economic development in future years. Whether this will indeedy be, it will show the time and the hard work of citizens, living in Rajhrad.

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